Samstag, 22. Juni 2013

Holistic framework to improve development interventions




ITIL ®V3 (IT Service Management) 
PRINCE2 ® (Projects in Controlled Environments)
Agile Management Innovations
Wirtschaftsinformatik  - Diplom-Ingenieur
Informatikmanagement - Mag. rer. soc. oec
Wirtschaftsinformatik - Bakk.rer. soc. oec
Social Science - DEUG












The challenge is that we can only deeply tackle poverty with the right comprehensive development approaches. Poverty is a very complex and variable phenomenon. The lacks of the access to the efficient sociocultural infrastructures (physical infrastructures) and the related knowledge management and transfer (soft infrastructures) for poor people, and the lacks to the comprehension of the poverty´s transformations in time and in space handicap sustainable development efforts.  

So it seems like poorest are often underestimated, ignored and marginalized in the sustainable development mechanisms because we are thinking  that they’re not profitable and it will take enorm resources to include them into sustainable development  decisions, management and operations.


Therefore we  think that there is a need to discuss about a holistic framework to improve development projects and programs. A framework that  describes what it takes to put together a workable sustainable development efforts.









"Sociocultural Infrastructures (hard/soft)" are basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It is an important term for judging a country or region's development....


These sociocultural infrastructures include, for example,  learning experience, spiritual, moral, religion and philosophy dimensions, transport infrastructures, water infrastructures, communication infrastructures, solid and liquid waste infrastructures, earth monitoring and measurement infrastructures, management and governance of social infrastructures, economic and cultural infrastructures, economic infrastructures, social infrastructures, cultural infrastructures, environmental infrastructures etc......

*The success of the holistic framework concept that we will discuss in this paper depends on how well the design of each development intervention (project/program) is integrated, and on how well local governments, local beneficiaries etc. are capable to play the key role among the rest of the stakeholders.


The local governments, local beneficiaries etc. must actively participate in the acceptance, decision, proposition, and funding phase of each development project to approve and to ensure that the chosen project is sustainable and favorable to their social, economics, public, politic, cultural environment*


We hope that you will find this holistic framework that we are discussing in this paper useful to your situation. Please feel free to comment and augment based on your thoughts and experiences. 

Obstacles

Citation, Whatever the social, economic, politic solutions (project, program, evaluation, development aid, innovations, finances, technology, aboundance of natural resources etc.) poverty will continue to defy solutions as long as poor people do not get access to the right economic, social, public and cultural infrastructures (physical infrastructures) and the related  knowledge  management and transfer (soft infrastructures) that affect and endorse their daily lives and activities wherever they are living”.

Implementing successfully development programmes or projects in unknown environment is a great challenge. Most development projects fail when they meet local socio cultural infrastructures and because the traditional programme or project management methods are not able to cope with constant changes in the communities’ environment.

The traditional, linear planning models are not flexible to respond to certain obstacles that handicap sustainable development programs or projects. Certain donors’ decisions could be based on rigid plans and contracts that could not be modified or changed during programmes and projects designing, implementing, delivering and supporting. Furthermore the lacks of the targeted communities to participate and to specify the adequate requirements before starting the projects are not well integrated.

Therefore we believe that it is time to think about a new development intervention that includes the inclusion management in all phases of the project, the availability or the access to the sociocultural Infrastructures (Physical/soft) that enable the development and the support of the intervention on the target site, the knowledge Transfer and Change Management that enable efficient management and the exploitation of the intervention on the target site after the intervention exits,

Reference table – in case of the lack of critical sociocultural infrastructures



The table below summarizes the social impacts in case of the lack of critical sociocultural infrastructures

Failure or breakdown of critical socio cultural infrastructures
Types of folks affections and social impacts
Power Supply
Operating failures of electrical devices without emergency power supply (fridge, computer etc.);
Defrosted food as potential source of human disease;
Impossibility of buying and selling food and other goods as a consequence of the shortage of cash supply based on the failure of electronic payment systems. Disturbance of various
services in the retail industry;
Disturbed consumer behaviour, e.g. demand for (cold) instant meals and ready-to-serve food;
Collapse of small healthcare providers like medical practices/pharmacies;
Disturbance of the water supply and sewage system;
Disturbance of the public and private transport sector through failure of lamps and street
lighting;
Anxiety, fear, insecurity, uncertainty and even panic provoked by lasting blackouts of
unknown cause
However, short-term blackouts induce pro-social, friendly attitudes, even enthusiasm and
Willingness to help those affected.
Disturbance of typical social routines, appearance of social conflicts;
Plundering, rapes, robberies, revolts;
Increase in personal communication and significance;
Consolidation of social relationships;
Water Supply
Quality reduction of potable water due to excrements, bacteriological or chemical contamination or to pathogenic agents in the pipe network;
Particular exposure of vulnerable groups (children, elderly people, pregnant women or
persons with immune deficiencies) to the occurrence of infectious diseases;
Impairment of hygienic measures like hand washing and sewage disposal;
Risk of flooding due to inundation of the sewage system.
Public Health
Life-threatening risks for patients, homes for elderly and nursing homes;
Overcrowding of the temporary care facilities.
(Tele-)Communication
Impairment to use telecommunication bypass strategies;
Communication difficulties among action units can affect the waiting periods for victims and slow down their rescue.
Transportation systems
Risk of isolated victims due to the inaccessibility of blocked/damaged streets and bridges;
Difficulties in locating specific addresses of victims by action units due to loss of/ damage to the road signs.
Insurance industry
Damage caused by natural disasters usually is not covered. Adjustments /upgrading of policies result in a drastic increase of the insurance charges to be supported by the affected.




The  table above gives a clear picture on the multiple vulnerabilities of a social system, and its indispensable connections with the various sociocultural infrastructures. It can be concluded that the well-being of citizens depend on the sociocultural infrastructures that affect and endorse their daily lives and activities.


Solution approach

Inclusion Management in all phases of the project

We need a sustainable management model that ensures fair decisions and efficient allocation of development management resources. This pillar ensures that development project will be engaging with local members in needs, donors, representative of people on decision making. It supports too local members in needs to participate and to make their own decisions according to their economic, public, politic, social and environmental.

It is important that all stakeholders participate in the all decisions meetings to hear the situation and make progressive visible the needs and challenges of local members in needs. This pillar supports the initiatives like bundling of different efforts on local, national and international level; common coordination, decisions-sharing of all actors involved; holistic interventionist approach, the integration of the people and actors directly concerned into the intervention processes, inclusion in all aspects of the project, respects of local members in needs voices, self-determination of local members in needs in order to participate, to collaborate and to contribute to the decisions, systemic approach to assessment and a common decision making.


Inclusion is defined as, “The active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversity—in people, in the curriculum, in the co-curriculum, and in communities (intellectual, social, cultural, geographical) with which individuals might connect—in ways that increase one’s awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within systems and institutions” (AAC&U, 2009,  3).



Sociocultural Infrastructures (Physical/soft) that enable the development and the support of the project on the target site

To achieve, support the old and new Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) we need to focus more attention on sociocultural infrastructures for achieving better development results. This requires new development strategies, politics, visions etc. that aim to encourage innovation and find creative, accessible and acceptable solutions to procurement and to the access to sociocultural infrastructures development challenges for poor people.

This pillar supports initiatives like: ensuring the procurement and the access to the economic, politic, social, public, social and environmental sociocultural infrastructures that enable the development and the support of the project. For example,  access to renewable energy infrastructures, access to modern sustainable agriculture and fishing infrastructures, access to organic farming infrastructures, access to better waste management infrastructures, access to modern management, health, finance, education and governance etc. infrastructures.

Knowledge Transfer and Change Management that enable efficient management and the exploitation of the project on the target site after it exits

We need to focus more attention on Knowledge transfer and Change Management for achieving better development results. Knowledge management and transfer are crucial to achieving the Mission of ending world poverty. Knowledge management and transfer are considerable intangible assets to develop, and to manage with success development projects.

Knowledge management should promote, drive and communicate how development stakeholders must effective provide local support groups, beneficiaries, communities and local governments the appropriate information, technologies, tools, talents, skills, rural/remote development centres, materials and knowledge that they need to promote and to drive effective the local knowledge management and knowledge transfer for supporting internal and external collaborative sustainable development processes.

This pillar supports initiatives like: understanding the knowledge management for development´s culture both on business case and on public good level (Community level), assessment of the problem, development of a knowledge-based system, acquisition and structuring of the related information, knowledge and specific preferences, implementation of the structured knowledge into local knowledge bases, testing and validation of the inserted knowledge, integration and maintenance of  the system, revision and evaluation of the system. the translation of academic knowledge into non-academic knowledge, focused the attention on the centrality of the problem of the transfer of knowledge into local context, the delivery of knowledge in the right format, change management issues, cultural oppositions, natural oppositions, manage, distribute, and support in places  development changes that sustainable development projects entail etc.

Advantage of the holistic framework

The holistic framework will use diverse inclusive development strategies to productively engage stakeholder at various stages of the project development´s phases, as summarized in the table below. The aim is to deliver long term sustainable development projects on the target site – often by improving quality, traceability, volume and reliability of all stakeholders – while also benefiting local Members' Needs. The local beneficiaries gain may not be simply via simple project delivery on the target site, but may be delivered through change management, social, politic, economic stability and progress, the access to the right sociocultural infrastructures and the related knowledge management and transfer that enable the exploitation and the support of the project on this target site after the project exits.

Reference table – advantage of the holistic framework



This table below summarizes the advantage of the holistic framework


Different perspectives
When individuals from various professional with technical and non-technical-backgrounds come together to work on a project, the result is that all angles are considered. This is a particularly attractive outcome, especially in situations where the development project is expected to command huge resources, because it eliminates the possibility of errors arising out failures and considers the effect of contributing elements.
Creativity
Bringing together several different voices in the management of the project helps to raise the profile of ideas that may never have come to the forefront if not for the collaborative effort. Teams that are well-structured consist of staff members from various levels of the stakeholders and these individuals naturally bring with them their outlook on the project. Creative solutions are often the result of simply looking at challenges from a different angle.
Synergie
The formation of collaborative teams often involves the separation of duties. Within the structure of the team, certain members may be asked to focus on particular elements and put forth a recommendation based on their expertise, knowledge, experience. This kind of separation of responsibilities helps to bring the benefit of synergy to the project because areas of overlap are more easily identified and the incidences of re-doing work can be eliminated.
Decision Making
The influence of several different stakeholders that may comprise the overall team helps to ensure that the decisions made are ones that consider the effect of all the interested parties. This means that workplace collaboration can root out the occurrence of biased or partisan decisions because each stakeholder has a presence around the table.
Delivery Times
If the stakeholders are able to recognize their synergies and leverage the experience of all the parties represented, a project that is a collaborative effort has the potential to be completed on or even before schedule.





The complexity of poverty and its economic, politic, cultural, social and environmental transformations underline the importance of understanding the process of establishing a sustainable community intervention program. To success this one we need pragmatic development intervention options that requires well managed frameworks.

Pragmatic intervention

If we accept that development issues as competitive, then we must next figure out how we can best operate with these issues. We think we all can be more pragmatic and more in development intervention if local government is working hand in hand with citizens and other stakeholders to build local coalitions that overcome the traditional divide between state and non-state development actors to promote sustainable project service delivery.

The holistic framework for development refers to all human development interventions that involve all the stakeholders in all phase of the development processes that includes social, public, economic, environmental and cultural infrastructures (hard infrastructures) and the related knowledge management and transfer (sociocultural infrastructures (soft and hard infrastructures) . This underlines that any development interventions must be designed to achieve the effective well-being and social progress.

The holistic framework integrates each development project as a progressively processes that enable and support social, public, economic, environmental, cultural equity, progress and justice. It defines a development project not only as the purpose of the human development stability but a variant of poor people's empowerment through the efficient exploitation of their own local resources, social, public, economic, environmental and cultural infrastructures and the available knowledge for their own sustainable development.

An holistic framework that improves development interventions, and that seeks to address simultaneously the complexity of the poverty and it social and environmental transformation through the efficient exploitation and distribution of  local/global resources, the access to the right sociocultural infrastructures (physical infrastructures) and the related knowledge management and transfer (soft infrastructures).

International development community needs to redouble efforts in using holistic intervention framework to reach more sustainable results on their target sites. One of the powers of the holistic intervention framework is to include donors, consultants, evaluation, PPP and public procurement representatives, beneficiaries, governments etc. at all phases of the project. This enables a great transparence and a common basis before beginning after achievement.

It seems that development interventions, development projects, and development programs could not drive and promote fine sustainable development without adequate basic sociocultural infrastructures (physical and soft infrastructures) in agriculture, education, logement, culture, water, ICT, public, politic, energy, administration, transports, economics and medicine etc. that respond better to the need for basic well-being support and emergency with local good structures, and with good political  and public management of local resources and development aid.

Through a well-designed intervention framework we can quick measure and evaluate what could work on the basis of evidence on the target site before intervening.

Reference table – project management



This table below summarizes the project phases with a short description including the stakeholders’ participation


Project phase
Description
Project stake Holders
Project Identification
The  process in which a social or an environmental problem  is identified and has needed  short or long-term  intervention
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process)
Project selection

This process is to ensure that the investments that will be carried out offer not only value for money but support the sustainability in social, public, economic, cultural and environmental well-being of the beneficiaries through own management.  
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process )
Project Design
This process ensure that capacity building and building training processes on the target  local are available or need to be provided including  the availability of the sociocultural infrastructures( physical infrastructures) and the related knowledge management (soft infrastructure) that support the project after the project exits..
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process)
Project Appraisal
This process describes an intensive collaboration, participation interaction  vice versa between the entire Project stake Holders including  site visits to the milieu to understanding the cultures, difficulties, the realities of the milieu  and the complexity of the environment in which they want to operate etc..
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process)
Request for Proposals
The process describes all the   public and private business solicitations for the accomplishment of  the project
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process )
Project Proposal
This process describes all the solicitations received in a transparent manner among all the stake holders including a common decision.
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process)
Project Implementation
This process describes the implementation of the project in sustainable manner to impact  in a long-term social, public, economic, cultural and environmental well-being of the target beneficiaries
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP  and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process )
Supporting the project
This process describes the capacity management, building and training etc. of the target beneficiaries in driving and promoting in sustainable manner the project of their own well-being including the availability of the sociocultural infrastructures (physical infrastructures) and the related knowledge management (soft infrastructure) that allow them to exploit the project after the project exits..
Donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP and public procurement representative,  beneficiaries,  government etc. (all the project stake Holders are well  represented and well integrated in the process)





In pursuit of the project local government and local representative must work hand in hand with local beneficiaries and other stakeholders to build the project coalitions and overcome the cultural divide between local and non-local stakeholders to promote the development of the project and it well delivery on the target site. A checklist must be used to facilitate the understanding of the project´s resources potentials and its limits.

Due diligence

A checklist must be used to ensure the potential limits of the project and the potential available resources. It helps to ensure if the project is worth, and all the resources that enable the complete success of the project are available on the target site or not, and if the intervention will be sustainable. The checklist must be focused on the equitable and transparent representation of the stakeholders, and particularly on the target site potentials (capacity in access to the sociocultural infrastructures (physical infrastructures) and the related knowledge management (soft infrastructures) that enable to exploit and to support locally in a sustainable manner the project after exit.

Reference table – availability of resources on the target site



This table below summarizes which resources are available locally depending on each project´s environment you choose.


Fund that enable the implementation and the support of   the project on the target site
Available
Not available
Sociocultural infrastructures that enable the success of the project on the target site
Available
Not available
Knowledge Management for development  (nonacademic and academic knowledge) that enable the success of the project on the target site
Available
Not available
Local competence and resources
Available
Not available
Capacity to exploit local efficient the project
Available
Not available
Capacity to support local the project after exit
Available
Not available
Capacity to provide local the access to the required  sociocultural infrastructures,  and knowledge management and transfer that support effective the project
Available
Not available
Capacity to procure the required  sociocultural infrastructures that enable the efficient operation and exploitation of the project after  the project exits
Available
Not available
Capacity to maintain locally the required  sociocultural infrastructures that enable the efficient operation and exploitation of the project after  the project exits
Available
Not available
Capacity to respect local the target environment and cultures
Available
Not available
Capacity to manage local  the project´s change
Available
Not available
Human skills, capacity building required for the project are available on the target site
Available
Not available




If all the resources (funding, knowledge (nonacademic and academic), human skills, capacity building, access to/procurement of sociocultural infrastructures that enable and support the project during and after the project exits, respect of local culture potential and its environments) are available the intervention will be sustainable and the next challenge will be how to address the equitable participation issue.

If the access to the sociocultural infrastructures and the related knowledge management and transfer are not available, and the capacity to provide the access to these sociocultural infrastructures, and knowledge management and transfer that enable and support effective the project is impossible it will be better to leave the project except emergency.  Otherwise it would create other economic, politic, public, cultural and environmental problems.

Addressing equitable participation issue

Funding the project is not sufficient. Having all stakeholders participate in all phases of the project is a great a challenge. This is not small exercise. It is very complex and sometimes it seems to be unpractical because of the time, agreement, resources and business interests.  It is difficult. Any way donor, consultants, evaluation, PPP and public procurement representative, beneficiaries, government etc. have to work hand in hand in all the phases of the projects to address sustainable development issue in a sustainable manner.

An equitable representation of all the stake holders (donors, evaluations experts, governments, consultants, beneficiaries etc.) in all the phases of the project (from the decision, designing, planning, operation, delivery and supporting) will bring more transparency and result in the development intervention...

The equitable representation of all the stakeholders could be achieved only where donors, evaluations experts, governments, consultants, beneficiaries etc. find common representation processes for a common goal.

The inclusion of all the stake holders in all the phases of the project will lead to a compromise that encourages a celebration and a positive motivation of development community. Thus this requires a fine compromise.

Reference table – Addressing equitable participation



This table below summarizes how to address equitable participation issue


Initiating the project
The group members start on working together towards their purpose. Suggest ions on procedure for advancing the group's tasks. Measuring and evaluating what work on the basis. Suggestions on the best task to undertake next. Finding a right tool for measuring and deciding how to initiate group sessions for continuous improvement activity.
Information, or opinion, seeking
Asking for facts, relevant information, suggestions and getting ideas about the group and target site concern. Group interaction and workshop to learn from each other Collaboration session to generation management technique can be used on the target site.
Clarifying or elaborating
Interpreting ideas, knowledge of the target culture environment, clearing up confusions, identifying alternatives, and raising related issues concerning the management on the target site.

Summarizing
Pulling together related ideas, restating suggestions. Concluding the appropriate work processes. Designing the stake holders’ leader.
Consensus seeking
Testing nearing conclusion and decision. Participation, collaboration and Decisions
Intervention is necessary because of resistance to making decisions. commitment and acceptance of responsibility
Implementing
Assigning responsibility to each stake holder
Delegating authority to each stake holder
Stake holder accepting personal commitments
Stake holder meetings and platform for subsequent action on the target site.
Argumentative discussion process
Essential act of the stake holders’ that will enable to reach quick agreement and consensus on project issue. Discussion on each viewpoint of all stake holders representative. This enable to keep the stake holders honest and humble and avoid a cheap,  imposed and exclusion  decision
Consultants
Consulting is demanded to avoid potential conflicts needs among the stakeholders. The project structure must be handled carefully to prevent the local community to feel that they are being treated like second class citizens.





Addressing local cultural and environmental resistance issue

Cultural differences among development workers are fascinating, but the development projects face the challenge of maintaining a harmonious and effective learning environment in the multicultural development projects. Development intervention could not ignore this area.

We must recognize and address cultural differences in order to ensure that we master well the development project on the target site (the social, political, economic, public, private, cultural environment).
We must communicate fully and well, and share the right knowledge of the project in the right format, for example translate the academic knowledge related to the project into non-academic knowledge on the target site, so that the needs of all project´s stakeholders are met and misunderstandings avoided.

For some community development could have a less individualistic and more group-oriented approach towards work, so that a development professional perceived as cheating in one country may be acting in accordance with custom in another. Therefore, addressing local cultural and environmental resistance issue could help to avoid incomprehension and make the engagement rules clear.

The ability to inspire people to reach great heights of performance and success is a skill that community development leaders need. Passion, purpose, listening and meaning help make a leader inspirational.

The ability to communicate well the passion, purpose and meaning of the development project to local citizens, development professionals, stakeholders must help establishing the inspirational development project. These points must help to enable inspiration and motivation in the stakeholders.

All stakeholders of the project also need to feel included. Inclusion of all stakeholders of the project goes beyond listening and feedback. For real inclusion all stakeholders need to feel intimately connected to the project´s actions and processes that are leading to the accomplishment of the goals and the decision of the project.

Talking to stakeholders about the development project is not enough. All stakeholders must allow the ideas and thoughts of local government and the final beneficiaries to help form the vision and mission, goals and action plan. Final beneficiaries will be never one hundred percent supportive of a development intervention they had no part in formulating. Target site communities need to see their ideas are incorporated in the development intervention and must understand why they were or not incorporated in the all project´s phases.

Reference table –understanding the key concepts of the project



This table below explores the understanding of key concepts of the project individually and in a group depending on each project´s environment we choose.


Questions to explore
Suggestions on process
How can we understand the key concepts of the project?
Explore and understanding of key concepts of the project individually and in a group. For example, the exploration of the definition of the well-being, sustainable development, the aim of the project, local participation, project delivery and support etc.
What is the purpose of this project?
Review the purpose and the logic of the project exploring issues such as: What is the problem the project seeks to solve? Who are the stakes Holders? What is the difference in the life of the beneficiaries if the project successes? Are there planning tools based on results such as outcome mapping and theory of Change approach that might help?
What do the beneficiaries of the project?
What are their motivations? Are they agreed on the project? What are their reasons? What are their expectations?
What are the motivations and expectations of the project?
Leading a discussion that invites participants to share:
How and why we want to make an involvement? Hope to win? Intention to contribute to local sustainable development efforts? Intentions that other contribute?
What is the organizational context in which we will deliver this r project?
Using creative means such as agile methods and traditional methods of project management to explore the organizational culture and values of the target environment (infrastructure,   attitudes, local skills, capacity building, and knowledge.). Addressing a portfolio of each stakeholder, including people external to the project that could affect the project, compare the capacity and influence of each other etc.
How do we go forwards with the project?
Find out what and how each stakeholder think to offer its services on an ongoing basis and how they will do it.
For example the management and description of  a day of working together on the target site that includes the complete stake Holders etc.
How decisions are going to be taken?
Explore the different scenarios making big decisions such as the adoption of a common communication´s format as well as the procurement and management of long-term available basic sociocultural infrastructure of the project etc. Explore the question like who would be involved?
How will we work together and delivered the project on the target site?
Identify which experience the each stakeholder has on the fieldwork. Approach might be to share transparent communication and decisions. Another approach might be to increase mutual meetings to raise awareness on the target site
This supposes the questions like what kind of partnership the beneficiaries have, how is it similar or different, what works and what does not work on the target site?
Think generate principles and strategies to work together, including methods of communication and etiquette etc.
What do we expect from the head of the project?
What kind of leader of the project suits us? The head of the project has shortcomings such as control of the land, culture, mentality on the field? How can this be balanced? What are the responsibilities? Are there other alternatives? etc.
What should we do if things go wrong?
Construct scenarios of what could go wrong. Explore different ideas of "bad", and then consider how it could be taken into account (the principles of collaboration and participation).etc.
How can we learn in this process?
Explore collaborative approaches to learn from each other. Look simple models for learning as "experiential learning cycle" and see how they may apply to the project. Consider how to learn before and during the process of research methods.
How will we monitor and evaluate our work?
Discuss with understanding (understandings are often quite different), the experience of each stakeholder, and what they expect to contribute etc...




Using agile assessment approach to evaluate the project

Agile assessment approach may be a group of tasks to perform. It may respond to implemented clarification and tasks as a common action in a successive agreement with all stakeholders of the development project. Agile assessment approach focuses on the comparative analysis of the development project. This clarifies which requirements and practices are suitable for the development, operation, delivery and cooperation among stakeholders. The best suitable agile assessment approach practices to evaluate the project would improve incremental development monitoring and traceability of the project´s requirements.

Reference table - assessment



This table below summarizes which of the following statements comes closest to prior analysis process requirements of a development project


Needs analysis
yes
not
not sure
We master the realities of the environment
yes
not
not sure
We take the largest number of beneficiaries that we can trust in a short period of time before starting the program development?
yes
not
not sure
We are using the living conditions of the beneficiaries to establish our project?
We perform the initial analysis and then expand the list of conditions of life of beneficiaries while developing appropriate solutions work?
yes
not
not sure
What is the longest amount of time to plan the requirements of our development?
yes
not
not sure
What is the longest amount of time to acquire the basic requirements of our development program and proceed to the transfer of knowledge and technology?
yes
not
not sure
Each requirement can be developed in less than five years or beyond 5 years?
yes
not
not sure
Each requirement can be developed in less than 10 years or beyond 10 years?
yes
not
not sure
Some potential requirements need more than 10 years of time put into operation?
yes
not
not sure
Report actors and beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
We build a direct relationship with the beneficiaries in cooperation?
yes
not
not sure
Common fieldwork over a period 1 to 5 years?
yes
not
not sure
Common fieldwork over a period 1 to 7 years?
yes
not
not sure
Common fieldwork over a period 1 to 10 years?
yes
not
not sure
Reactivity in the development program?
yes
not
not sure
Change requests are flexible and are always treated in agreement with the beneficiaries and function   of the primary needs of well-being?
yes
not
not sure
We have a formal process to change of control; all changes require the approval and signature including the signing of the beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
Change requests tend to enter the time and be a high priority, so that all stakeholders in the development program including beneficiaries seek to attain the other visions of the development program?
yes
not
not sure
Priority requirements are treated exactly with everyone?
yes
not
not sure
Collaborative team development project?
yes
not
not sure
All work is done by collaboration and participation with transparent reporting?
yes
not
not sure
Community development and beneficiaries agree to perform specific tasks (management, procurement, evaluation work practices, analysis, etc...) by consultants?
yes
not
not sure
Actors and beneficiaries choose what they will work from the priorities of basic needs?
yes
not
not sure
Technical tasks and changes in team development program
yes
not
not sure
The actors of the development project give priority to recipients to determine how the work should be executed?
yes
not
not sure
The actors of the development program give priority to recipients to determine how the work should be executed?
yes
not
not sure
Measures are available to redirect the project management in case of changing socio-cultural requirements and basic infrastructures?
yes
not
not sure
The team of the operation of the development project works as hard as possible on the ground with recipients to adapt to change and get the project to be readily available to beneficiaries through the transfer of know-how and appropriate technologies?
yes
not
not sure
Composition of the team of the project?
yes
not
not sure
Practitioners in the development project can work on almost any part of the project or may alter the articles of development project?
yes
not
not sure
The practitioners of development project are able to reassign tasks in case of bad management development project?
yes
not
not sure
Project specialists working on development of specific project areas or within specific technology project are able to provide a sustainable solution on demand to our program?
yes
not
not sure
Communication and development  project
yes
not
not sure
Requirements and specifications are explicit and detailed practitioners development program can reach analysts with any questions, requests for sociocultural change and defects are recorded and coordinated?
yes
not
not sure
Meetings and workshops occur frequently (daily / weekly etc...) Among beneficiaries, analysts and practitioners, all in the same forum to discuss the basic needs of the beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
Project practitioners generally seek the respond deeply to the needs of the beneficiaries with the respect of the local environment and culture potential?
yes
not
not sure
Management development project?
yes
not
not sure
The project is managed and operated through participatory and collaborative way?
yes
not
not sure
Delaying the release of the development project to ensure all sustainable project features are included in the beneficiaries needs?
yes
not
not sure
Report of the operationalization of a part of the development project to ensure a target release date?
yes
not
not sure
Planning activity?
yes
not
not sure
Stake holders plan in advance and periodically, and review the performance of the project team against the development project plan vis-á-vis the basic needs of the beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
Stake holders plan often and periodically, and adjust the plan of the development project?
yes
not
not sure
Stake holders expect to continuously make new plans, new things (needs, infrastructure etc.) and new Change as measured?
yes
not
not sure
Length of the development project?
yes
not
not sure
The stake holders expect for a very short period of time of the development project, rarely more than a year or two years before?
yes
not
not sure
Stake holders expect the development project for a short period of time in detail for only a few months to 6 weeks?
Stake holders’ plans are up or match effective the level of the primary needs of the beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
Stake holders expect the development project for a long period of time, with details drawn for six years or more?
yes
not
not sure
The stake holders opt for honest and transparent governance of the project?
yes
not
not sure
Governance is perceived here as a formal and structured process requiring periodic processes and technical audits carried out by independent consultants comprised of local beneficiaries?
yes
not
not sure
The governance is described here as an informal activity implemented through management by senior management development program or beneficiaries who place checks at irregular intervals?
yes
not
not sure
The governance is described here as simply a shared responsibility?
yes
not
not sure
The standards are developed jointly by the actors and beneficiaries of the development project?
yes
not
not sure
Knowledge management and socio-cultural infrastructures are available and common compliance is enforced by the appropriate local processes?
yes
not
not sure
The governance is perceived here as a bit chaotic, and everyone seems to think they have the responsibility of governance on a certain part of the operationalization of the development program?
yes
not
not sure
The governance of the development project is limited or non-existent?
yes
not
not sure




Finding the right parameter to evaluate and measure the nominated development project

Finding the right parameter to evaluate and measure development project is another great challenge. The effectiveness of an indicator can be measured and verified only if the information and analysis expected from this indicator are clear and pragmatic. An analysis of the situation and the definition of the effects referred form the basis of the measurement of each indicator that obliges a development project are very important and must be treated with a great responsibility. We believe that it is better to refer to pragmatic parameters on the field that all stakeholders of the project to understand as well as possible the aim of the development project and its effects on the economic, public, politic, social and cultural target site´s environments

Reference table – Pragmatic parameters



This table below summarizes some parameters that could determine if a development project must be happened depending on which sustainable development option we choose.


Parameters
Obstacles
Evaluation indicators
Electricity
Regular breaks
Frequent interruptions 
Fragility of electrical installations
Poor management and maintenance
Proliferation of fraud
Lack of discipline management
Large voltage variations
high installation costs

Access capability   for all access capability in  the remote villages
Capacity access in cities
Capacity to address price
Capacity  recovery
Capacity of subscribers in the villages and towns
Capacity to develop the  access of electricity to rural areas
Drinking water
Inadequate water supply
Difficult access to drinking water in urban and rural areas
Lack of  proper water in rural areas
Difficulties of the  installation of water pumps
Difficulties  and the lack of proper drinking water in the villages and rural areas
Capacity of  the  access of the poorest in proper drinking water
Capacity   to develop the  access of drinking water in rural and urban areas
Capacity   to modernize  water supply in rural centers
Housing
Lack of sociocultural infrastructures such as schools, colleges and high schools, health centers, housing, centers of development, rural development centers in remote villages, state administration, especially in rural areas.
Difficulties for poorer  to access to public social infrastructure (schools, clinics, roads, training center, fulfillment center, center for exchanging experiences, training center etc..
Lack of effective institutional and regulatory frameworks in the management and development of public social infrastructures
Lack of decent toilet covered
Problem of excreta management
Difficulties in managing solid waste and wastewater
Capacity to centralize and  to decentralize development  services  to promote sociocultural infrastructures in remote areas
Capacity to measure the modern access to surface cultivation for rural people  (development centers, land, rural centers)
Capacity to building    many  adequate housing and related services for poor people
Capacity of improving living conditions in poor neighborhoods and safety in rural and urban populations
Capacity to measure the  public health for all

Capability to create the toilets and to provide the proper management including  solid waste and wastewater


Social
Difficulties of political participation
Obstacle to cultural diversity
Difficult choice
Social exclusion

Capacity to promote political participation efforts  and to address cultures diversity
Capacity to adopt the measures that  promote efforts and measures of well-being
Capacity to adopt political system that encourage free choice
Lifestyle
Difficulties in accessing transport
Difficult to access shops and services
Low citizenship and civility
Difficulties in accessing education favorite
Lack of means of environmental protection
Capacity to adopt development concepts that enable the  access to  public transport, to trade services, and that create values ​​of citizenship and civility
Capacity to adopt development´s environment that drives and promote public and private business, and social education, and that enables the  protection of  the environment
Sports and Recreation
Difficulties events
Difficulties in Sports
Difficulties in accessing public and private  library
Difficulties involved á community life

Capacity to develop  events in urban and remote area
Capacities that promote opportunities for sports
Capacity   to access to public and private library
The chances to access to  community life
Health
Difficult access   to health services
Difficulties consulting health services
Low life expectancy,
Low capacity and capability of mortality
Low capacity and support the delivery means
High morbidity
Lack of prenatal care
Capacity  to seek treatment
Capacity to afford traditional and modern medicines
Capacity to give birth in a health center in urban and remote area
Capacity to treat and to prevent   HIV / AIDS and malaria
Education
Low capacity of primary enrollment
Low capacity secondary enrollment
Low skills and literacy resources
Lack of access to primary school
Difficulties in access to secondary school
Lack of access to training
Difficulties in accessing favorite learning
Difficulties of access to public assistance
Schooling expenses
for public education
Capacity to make schooling
Capacity to pay for school supplies
Capacity to access to a training center
Capacity to access to national and international competitions
Capacity to access to national and international scholarships
Environments
Poor quality of the natural environment
Poor environmental quality natural artificial diversity, aesthetic, architectural quality
Difficulties to feel good
Difficulties to exercise multiple activities with public policies that integrate all   dimensions with maximum respect for the environment
Capacity to protect the  local environment
Capacity to manage sustainable the local environment
capacity to  exercise multiple social, public, private activities with public policies that integrate all   dimensions with maximum respect of the environment
Capacity to carry multiple public political activities integrating all dimensions with maximum respect of the environment
Social/office equipment
Lack of afford or access:
Car / truck
Motorcycle
Bicycle
Refrigerator / freezer
Cooker
Sewing machine
kitchen
Bar
Technical rooms.
Exhibition space.
Iron
Mattress / bed
Watch or clock
Land, building
Livestock
Sheep / goats
Capacity to purchase
(Car / truck, motorcycle, bicycle, refrigerator / freezer, stove, sewing machine, kitchen,
Iron, mattress / bed, watch or clock, land, buildings, livestock, sheep / goats, chickens, etc.).
Capacity to access to bar,   technical rooms, exhibition etc... spaces
Capacity to enjoy the minimum life
Communication
Access  to information
Access to knowledge
Communication
Radio / cassette player
TV
Center  for sustainable development training and exchange of experiences

Capacity to access to right and actual information on radio / cassette player, Internet,  phones, TV
Capacity to access to the center of action in sustainable development training and exchange of experiences
Capacity to access to local and regional knowledge for development exchange center
Transport
Rural roads are   often impracticable
impracticable during rainy seasons
Isolation of villages production
Difficulties in disposing of production to commercial centers
Isolation of production areas   of goods  food,  service and consumption
Difficulties in selling more
agricultural products to various national and regional markets
Maritime and air transport often privatized and poorly distributed income
Almost non-existent rail
Capacity to create sustainable  rural road
Capacity  to access easily to public  infrastructures, to commercial and regional centers
Capacity to open up villages of   their production
Capacity to promote and provide the equitable distribution of public revenues and resources
Capacity to promote  public and private  rail transport
Poste and telecommunication
access in remote areas limited
Capacity and capability of coverage limited limited, spontaneous interruption of telephone calls including access more difficult in   rural areas. Access to internet limited
Capacity to promote the access to  urban and rural population
Capacity to provide affordable cost units for all
Capacity to offer  all the access to the internet





Manage the complexity of the nominated development project

The traditional, linear planning models are not flexible to respond to certain obstacles that handicap sustainable development efforts. Anyway implementing successfully development projects in unknown environment is a great challenge. Most development projects fail when they meet local socio cultural infrastructures and because the traditional programme or project management methods are not able to cope with constant changes in the communities’ environment. Sometimes local communities could not exploit in sustainable manner the project on the target site because of the lacks of knowledge and sociocultural infrastructures that support efficient the project.
The success of development intervention depends on well collaboration and connection of the stakeholders of the project to each other, while making the knowledge related to the project more accessible and without restriction, more available in different knowledge´s format through the access to the suitable sociocultural infrastructures that support the project in a well-designed interaction between discipline, process and management tools.

Reference table –  interaction between discipline



This table below summarizes the interaction between discipline, process and tools that enable the management of the development project

Discipline:
Process:
Tools:
Project management
Initiating the project
Planning the project
Executing the project
Monitoring and controlling the project
Closing the project

Statement of work, Project charter, Business case
Work breakdown structure, Budget estimations, Resource allocation, Schedule
Tracking, Project´s risk identification and mitigation, Reports on performance and compliance
Change management
Planning for the change of the project
Managing the change of the project
Reinforcing the change of the project

Individual change model
Communications
Sponsorship,
Stake holders
Participation and collaboration
Local capacity building
Coaching
Training
Resistance management





Delivering and supporting the nominated development project on the target site

Delivered a development project on the target site is complex and sometimes dangerous. It is a process that includes well-educated and non-educated folks. Delivered a development project on the target site with the participation of educated folk requires less effort.

If the major programme's objective of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to enhance the capacity of poor people to meet basic human requirement needs and to help them managing their own social, private, public, cultural and economic environments through the use of the available sociocultural infrastructures in sustainable development manner we need to work hand in hand with well-educated people and non-well-educated people. Delivered and supported development projects in a remote area are very complex. In that case, it becomes a little more difficult. The delivery and supporting of development project are very critical to the success of any development interventions. The delivery and supporting of each development project must be carefully treated at the beginning phase of the project. The delivery and supporting´s feasibility must be reviewed at each stage of the project.

Reference table – Pragmatic parameters




This table below summarizes some activities, solutions and guidance depending on sustainable development option we choose.


Activities
Solutions and guidance
Planning
Potentials of the local  knowledge and sociocultural knowledge infrastructures to assist in planning the delivering and supporting the project
Project and stake holders  guidance
Checklist of features to be included in scope of design of the project
Designing  and building the project environment
Culture compatibility
Environment imaging
Delivery  and supporting guide on the target site
Delivery process, and  monitoring guide
Change management  guide on the target site
Local acceptance testing
Testing guide that enables beneficiaries to test and evaluate the project delivery including the building of  capacity and  shills criteria
Delivery  planning and supporting  
Access to knowledge management that enables the project guide
Access to the Sociocultural management that support and enable the efficient exploitation of the project  guide
Volume of the available knowledge potentials and resources that facilitate the delivery of the project.
Available knowledge  (academic and non-academic)  to support the project
Operations Readiness
Desired project delivery monitoring on the target site





Planning the delivery review of the nominated development project

The delivery review ensures that all stakeholders agreed on the delivery and supporting processes of the project on the target site. The review process ensures that the stakeholders are prepared to deliver and to support the project right on the target site. We believe that all stakeholders of the project must be present at the planning of the delivery review, supporting review in order to discuss and to ensure the delivery and supporting readiness from their perspectives.

Reference tableresponsibility criteria



This table below summarizes some responsibility criteria in delivering and supporting the project on the target site depending on sustainable development option we choose.


Change management on the target site
Has the quality bar of the project design and delivery strategies been met? Has all projects testing on the target site been completed?
Have release notes from testing been captured in the knowledge base (academic and non-academic base)? Are the local support team and the target community aware of this knowledge?
Have the local sociocultural infrastructures that support the project been changed?
Are all sociocultural infrastructures (physical and soft infrastructures) that secured the project are available?
Have local knowledge resources and potentials been backed up?
Have physical and soft infrastructures rollback been tested on the target site?
Are results of testing the delivery of the project available with the right knowledge format (academic and non-academic?
Service Management on the target site
Does the project delivery meet the sustainable development requirements? Is the full knowledge that enables the exploitation of the project available in the right format?
Do the development project business cases have clear understanding of the local beneficiaries’ interests and its impact on their sustainable development environments?
Are the project functions fully operable on the target site? Are beneficiaries capable to exploit the project for their own well-being?
Sociocultural Infrastructure on the target site
Do the sociocultural infrastructures that enable the project and being used meet the development design criteria?
Are adequate access to the sociocultural  infrastructure and local supporting available
Operation on the target site
Has the project operations team been local trained on all operational tasks, such as culture, interests and conflict management?
Support on the target site
Are the local beneficiaries trained and ready for the operation of the project?
Has the knowledgebase that support the project been populated with local knowledge format and known issues?
If the target site environment will be affected and act differently, is the local project support ready with workarounds and change management?
Has communication to project beneficiaries occurred with the right information format?
Do they know new knowledge for development is being deployed and do they know what their responsibilities are? Are they responsible for the suitable maintenance of the project in collaboration with the entire stakeholder?
Has a training plan been developed to ensure that project beneficiaries are trained on the new project knowledge and its features?
Security on the target site
Does the local knowledge release meet the objective of the project requirements?
Have the local knowledge release a significant impact on the target site
Are there efficient sociocultural infrastructures that support the released local knowledge?
Local community on the target site
Has all known warranty knowledge on the target sit been available in the right format (academic, non-academic)?
Has the local community the capacity and is available for support the project modification?
Does the target community knows and understand the timing and scope of the project´s intervention?




Evaluation for continuous improvement of the nominated development project

The principle of continuous improvement of the development of the project implies that the project is continually assessed through tools, feedbacks and perceptions of the local communities and all stakeholders designed from inspection, like indicators and assessment approach. Internal and external evaluation should be carried out through grids adapted to the size and complexity of the project.

Reference table – continuous improvement



This table below summarizes some continuous improvements criteria depending on sustainable development option we choose.


Are we doing the right thing?

Are we improving the life situation of the poor on the targeted group?
Helping us the project to achieve the amelioration of the social condition of the poor on the targeted group?
Let’s change the project and set the right priorities?

Mustering the target site environment
What are we going to understand the target site environment?
Do the target site environment´s potentials attract the attentions of the community development workers?
Can we work hand in hand with the community that we have in front of us?
Are we doing it right?
Are we achieving our development project goals?
What have we done correctly / incorrectly?
Expectations of the targeted group are being met?
How can we improve?
What should we change in the future?
How can we produce more with the same input? 
How can we achieve the same effect with less input?





Communication

Effective communication can improve relationships by deepening connections to others and improving teamwork, decision-making, and problem solving. An important factor to success development project on the target site depends on how we communicate with local representatives and non-local representatives. This requires that we understand very well the culture and the communication´s style and format both on the target site and outside the target site. 
Reference table – continuous improvement



This table below summarizes some communication improvement depending on project´s environment



Communication

Are we talking and listening to the skills of others
Do we focus on face to face style?
Are we working together as a team from beginning to end of project?
Courage

Do we say things with transparency at any time in telling the truth about the progress of the project, the estimates?
Do we commit individually and collectively about what we do?
Feedback
Do we solicit feedback as early and as often as possible by the project target site team and local beneficiaries?
Do we consider the feedback and continuously adapt the project to the beneficiaries’ requirements?

Simplicity
Do we deliver simple and exploitable project solution without restriction to achieve the project objectives?
Do we encourage collaboration and interactions with the local project team group and the external project team group?
Do we have in place the  right project process, tools and knowledge
Respect
Do we respect the knowledge, competences, and skills of the local project team group?
Do we respect the expertise and the work of each stake holders?
Do we respect the social values and the project processes on the target site environment







Conclusion

A key challenge in this work was the definition of a holistic intervention in development sector. We defined the Holistic framework as an intervention which included all stakeholders in all the phases of the project. Bringing different stakeholders together for the common good can introduce various new perspectives in the management, operation, delivery and supporting of projects.
Reference table –difficulties of the holistic framework



This table below summarizes some difficulties of the holistic framework to improve development projects


Incidence
While bringing different stakeholders together for the common good can introduce various new perspectives to the dynamic of the discussion, there is also the looming threat of group think. This occurs when the stronger personalities are so persuasive that they manage to take over the discussion and supplant their ideas as the outcome for the group
Ambiguity
If the responsibilities of the different stakeholders are not clearly defined their contribution may fall into ambiguity and the result can only be chaos. Ambiguity is particularly common in collaborative groups that are extremely large. The benefit of having several different perspectives starts to decline after an optimum number of members is crossed and this number may vary from project to project.
Cost
Although advancements in technology make it possible for collaborative efforts to cross international barriers and even time zones, the cost of doing this must be factored into the equation. The larger the number of individuals involved in the collaborative effort the greater the cost of the exercise in terms of directly facilitating meetings and indirectly because of the time spent away from their other duties.
Times
Quite simply, when more people need to be consulted before a decision can be made, the project lead times are extended to facilitate this extra consultation
Conflict
When team members are constantly at crossroads over key points, the project suffers. Personality clashes have a lot to do with the ability to come to an agreement and if the chosen individuals are not able to communicate effectively, the overall project objectives will not be met.





We can conclude from the table above that this approach is not easy and requires great resources and efforts. However we think it would be a great benefit to community development to adopt and adapt this proposal in development project´s environment to get more efficient results. We really need a holistic framework approach so we can improve many development´s interventions results

Adopting this framework will guarantee that any development intervention has it merit on the target site. We really hope that community development will think about adapting this proposal in development agenda to achieve great development results on any target site.

Author, Amouzou Bedi, contact on LinkedIn. I will try to update this paper on a regular basis if  a need arises. Please if you have a suggestion and feedback with regards to this paper, please feel free to contact me. Your feedbacks and ideas are welcome.




References.

[Inclusise, URL] I.clusive design
[Knowledge, URL] Knowledge Engineering
[Povertry, URL] Povertry Reduction
[InclusiveDEv, URL] inclusive-development
[Industrialization, URL] industrialization-priority-for-africas
[Amouzou Bedi] Knowledge Package for Development
URL: http://amouzoubedi.blogspot.co.at/2012_10_01_archive.html
[Amouzou Bedi] Creating decentralized knowledge management and transfer culture for development
URL: http://amouzoubedi.blogspot.co.at/2012_09_01_archive.html
[Amouzou Bedi] La coopération agile au développement, book french édition
URL:http://amouzoubedi.blogspot.co.at/2011/09/la-cooperation-agile-au-developpement.html
[Amouzou, Bedi] La vie privée et sociale des plus pauvres: indicateurs pertinents dans les processus d´évaluation des programmes et projets de développement (Actuellement en édition)
URL: http://amouzoubedi.blogspot.co.at/2011_05_01_archive.html




Kommentare:

  1. very good. I will share your blog with appreciation. please join in membership with us. arab-international-peace (dot org.
    www.agda-ev.org/AGDA_cooperating-plan.html
    office director USA
    albertine harris
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