Donnerstag, 12. September 2013

We are lacking of the right delivery process and not of practical knowledge for development






ITIL ®V3 (IT Service Management) 
PRINCE2 ® (Projects in Controlled Environments)
Agile Management Innovations
Wirtschaftsinformatik  - Diplom-Ingenieur
Informatikmanagement - Mag. rer. soc. oec
Wirtschaftsinformatik - Bakk.rer. soc. oec
Social Science - DEUG












We  need to observe around  to come to the conclusion that we are lacking of the right delivery process and not of practical knowledge for development.








The objective of this paper is to respond to the angoisse -




at the end of the day, we can say we provided practical knowledge, we achieved results, however no one is happy and the solution becomes unsustainable  - A situation that makes development delivery complex and unconfortable.


"Long waiting times and endless queues are the norm for people collecting cash. In Gaza, the tension caused by the long wait sometimes descends into clashes in the street. One 45-year-old widow from Rafah recounts: "I went to collect my payment slip but there was a queue and it took me three hours to get it. Staff were sitting in a comfortable office, and us women and the elderly had to wait in the sun."

Poor targeting of cash transfers can be a problem and is seen as particularly unjust where people who are less poor benefit while extremely poor people remain on waiting lists or are unaware of their eligibility. In Kenya, many people living in poverty couldn't understand why they weren't receiving any money while others were. In this case, people hadn't realised that they have to apply to be enrolled on the programme.






In Uganda, elderly people receiving cash often find it difficult to make a complaint when mistakes happen. Sometimes this is due to technology problems or administrative delays, but often people are reluctant to complain because they fear their benefits will be taken away. One elderly man said those implementing the programme see people who complain as troublemakers" (Source: The Guardian).






Source: Wiki


We are not lacking of the practical knowledge for development. We are certainly facing the challenge to well design, produce, package, move, deliver and to support foreign practical knowledge for development into community practices (Practical Client Knowledge) for enhancing efficient investments in education, health, public administration, infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture and environmental and natural resource management etc. and particularly local community development outcomes. 







"* Example: in the early 20th century the American Red Cross - I believe led mostly by volunteers sort of invented Public Health outreach. In their context it was new, novel, innovative, and yet perhaps a bit messy and inefficient; yet people needed and appreciate this new practical knowledge and eventually local, state and national government adopted Public Health outreach and added it to standardized government services more within your two definitions.

* The challenge - how do we "Listen" carefully to the Practical client knowledge to discover what's working, to better understand the local context, then adapt or blend in your two types of practical knowledge to see, if combined with practical client knowledge we come up with even better local results.

* The mode issue - Otherwise, at the end of the day, we can say we provided practical knowledge, we achieved results, however no one is happy and the solution becomes unsustainable" (Bruce Summers, CVA, linkedin).
 
The practical Knowledge for Development is crucial to achieving the Mission of ending world poverty. This knowledge solves poorest people’s problems. Knowledge that is designed, tested, packaged and embedded in development interventions. 

Oft focused on the development of the capacities of the local communities in helping the communities to drive and to promote their own sustainable development processes through suitable evaluation processes, through the right adequate local sociocultural knowledge infrastructures, through effective collaborative and participatory approaches with governments, private sector, PPPs, NGOs etc. with the respect of the local Knowledge resources and potentials, at the right place and at the right moment.
 

A successful practical Knowledge for Development should be carefully targeted towards its audience, with the right mixture of delivery, support, simplicity, elegance, and, with the right sustainable communities’ development innovations through the right knowledge formats and the right sociocultural knowledge infrastructures.

The delivery and the support of practical Knowledge for Development into a foreign community practices (practical client knowledge)  are great challenge. Most Delivery and the support could fail when they meet local sociocultural infrastructures and because the traditional evaluations, programs and projects management methods are not able to cope with constant changes in the community practices’ environment.

the best Knowledge Management, learning and evaluation strategies in the UK are not necessarily the best Knowledge Management, learning and evaluation strategies in Uganda. Different groups and organizations (whether they are different due to political circumstances, economic resources, culture, social background or religion etc.) may have different associations in relation to concepts such as ‘leadership’, ‘cooperation’, ‘information’, ‘sharing’ and ‘monitoring” (Hovland 2003: 8).

The "Science of Delivery" is the right mechanism to design, to produce, to package,  to move, to deliver and to support successfully external and internal practical knowledge for development  into community practices (Practical Client Knowledge) for enhancing local community development outcomes.


Understanding and listening to by knowledge producers, governments and donors etc. could help to well design, to produce, to package, to deliver and to support with elegance and simplicity a practical knowledge package for development into a foreign community practices.










One of the reasons I’m so passionate about local poor communities information in the design, alignment and production of a practical knowledge package for development is because I find it to be the best way in development arena to help poorest people, to find something that could better works. And we’re not going to help poorest people unless we listen to them and evaluate what their important issues are.

It is sometime regretable to see that we do not really listen to poorest people to understand what they primary need, what they want, what issues are most important to them. Certainly they have primary needs that we should always deliver first or we should rethink how to delivery it better.

But listening to poor communities isn’t just about talking to our sources or even talking to People's Government at meetings. The poor people who we are serving have to earn our trust, but at the same time we always need to check out what they need and what they are saying.


Listening to poor communities  for finding what works in the basis  for evidence before intervention is meaning we need to be in the communities, go to the people wherever they are living, talking to them. Go where those poorest people are. Let them know where we are, to understand, and evaluating their needs.
 

The challenge is what to do? What we need to listen for and why? Responding to the following questions could help to understand what to do, and why we need to listen for poor people :

How people do we suppose to help view our engagement? Is it positive or negative?
What are they saying about our current program, project or service?
What do they think about our program, project and service area?
What do they like or dislike about our program, project or service?
How are their preferences changing?
Do they take our services seriously?
Do they respect our engagements and our requirements?
Do they meet our requirements?
How are our technologies and social trends impacting our targeted community practices?
What ideas might they offer for better services delivery?
How is the conversation, listening and understanding around our organization, issue area, program, service, delivery model, changing?
Why poorest local governments are so corrupted?
Why are poorest  voiceless and powerless?
......



One elegance of the science of delivery is to listen to the targeted community, and act on that feedback.


Anything we do in a community requires us to be familiar with its people, its issues, and its history. Carrying out an intervention or building a coalition is far more likely to be successful if  we are informed by the culture of the community and having an understanding of the relationships among individuals and groups within it. This will meet requirements of both functionality and elegance.

We need to adopt a posture of listening to community and understanding their practices in which we want to deliver service. And it is one of the most important missions of the science delivery.


But what would be different if we moved closely into intimate relationship with a community and we adopte a posture where we were listening –Delivery listening – wanting to know what it is that poor people want or need or in what ways we can deliver the service with success, simplicity and elegance into the community practices? 



Community practices vary from region to region, from sector to sector, change with the time  and in the space.  Transplanting what we did somewhere else and bring it into community practices whether poor people understand this or not, will not always  work.  We need to change while embracing a science of delivery to improve delivery  outcome.  "Otherwise, at the end of the day, we can say we provided practical knowledge, we achieved results, however no one is happy and the solution becomes unsustainable".







The success of the science of delivery  will depend on how well a delivered   intervention is designed, on how well a delivered   intervention  is targeted, on how  well a delivered   intervention  is articulated, on how well all the stakeholders are integrated and interested in the processes of the delivery (Why operate agile in sustainable development programmes and projects?).



Simple copy and paste or the simple transfer of a successfully delivery in another region or in another sector could not work. The success requires an innovative adaptation of the transferred, copied and pasted delivery ......



Anyway,  the *Science of Delivery* addresses more precisely an innovative development intervention (project and program) that includes: inclusion management in all phases of the intervention, the availability of the right sociocultural infrastructures that enable the development and the support of the intervention on the target site, the knowledge transfer mechanisms and change management that enable efficient management and the exploitation of the delivered intervention on the target site after the intervention exits.





Fig. Framework to improve development interventions
 



Another challenge is even government level was unable to guide and coordinate actions at local level since they lacked proper information and access to  area, while the local level was doing their best but had no proper platforms for coordinated action.  It is very important to realize that we need better coordination, listening, understanding,  and right information to help control the delivery of practical knowledge into regional, national, local context, and particularly into community practices.




The following figure describes a good way (Top-down und Bottom-up) to accomplish that is to create a delivery structure and description for knowledge management for development - a record of exploration and delivering hierarchies.
 

                        
                      Fig. Delivery structure and description - Top-down und Bottom-up approach



Central Department of the Knowledge for Development


Collaborates with public and private organizations, universities, government, knowledge researchers, knowledge centre for developments, volunteers, civil organizations, NGOs to research development knowledge, to identify suitable development products, etc. in each development sector
Designs the knowledge architecture in different formats
Produces the development knowledge in different formats
Testing and package the knowledge in different formats to a target development solution
Diffuses and delivers the practical knowledge for development across various platforms, repositories and with different formats into regional knowledge centre through different delivery channels
Manages change at the central niveau
Initiates assessment and evaluation to determine high practical knowledge level impact through  various testing processes
Determines changes required within practical knowledge architectures, formats and platforms to ensure they are functioning appropriately within community practices
Releases  updated knowledge formats to resolve validated incompatibilities
Incorporates necessary changes in future new practical knowledge products





Regional Centre



Collaborates with regional public and private organizations, universities, governments, knowledge researchers, knowledge centre for development, volunteers, civil organizations, NGOs for translating the delivered practical knowledge for development into the regional development context with the right formats across various platforms
Delivers the translated practical knowledge for development into the national development context with the right different formats
Works, reports to and communicates with the Central Department with regards to delivery and format issues
Provides support and upgrade to the delivered   practical knowledge for development
Works with other regional centres to share and resolve knowledge delivery, format, platform, support issues
Manages change and risk at the regional niveau
Initiates assessment and evaluation to determine high practical knowledge level impact through various testing processes
Determines changes required within practical knowledge architectures, formats and platforms to ensure they are functioning appropriately within community practices
Releases  updated knowledge formats to resolve validated incompatibilities
Incorporates necessary changes in future new practical knowledge products



National Centre

Collaborates with national public and private organizations, universities, governments, knowledge researchers, knowledge centre for development, volunteers, civil organizations, NGOs to choose the right translated practical knowledge for development that corresponds to the national development context with the right formats
Diffuses the selected practical knowledge for development across various platforms in different formats
works with national centre to share and resolve knowledge delivery, format, platform, support issues
Provides support and upgrade to the selected practical knowledge for development
Work, reports to and communicates with Regional Centre with regards to delivery and format issues
Works with other national centres to share and resolve knowledge delivery, format, platform, support issues
Manages change and risk at national niveau
Initiates assessment and evaluation to determine high practical knowledge level impact through various testing processes
Determines changes required within practical knowledge architectures, formats and platforms to ensure they are functioning appropriately within community practices
Releases updated knowledge formats to resolve validated incompatibilities
Incorporates necessary changes in future new practical knowledge products 






Local Centre

Collaborates with local public and private organizations, universities, governments,  knowledge researchers, knowledge centre for development, volunteers, civil organizations, NGOs  to choose and integrate the right translated practical knowledge for development that corresponds to the local community development context with the right formats
Works, reports to and communicates with Regional Centre with regards to delivery and format issues
Provides support and upgrade to the selected practical knowledge for development
Works with other local centres to share and resolve knowledge delivery, format, platform, support issues
Manages change and risk at the local niveau
Initiates assessment and evaluation to determine high practical knowledge level impact through various testing processes
Determines changes required within practical knowledge architectures, formats and platforms to ensure they are functioning appropriately within community practices
Releases updated knowledge formats to resolve validated incompatibilities
Incorporates necessary changes in future new practical knowledge products


A good way to accomplish that is to create a delivery structure and description - a record of exploration and delivering hierarchies.

 It's a good way to gain a comprehensive overview of the community practices, what it is now, what it's been in the past, and what it could be in the future. It’s important to understand community, what a community is, and the specific nature of the community practices we work in and we want to deliver a specific service. Understanding the community entails understanding it in a number of ways. 

Getting a clear sense of what is happening there may be key to a full understanding of it.  At the same time, it's important to understand the specific community practices we are concerned with.  The practices endorsed by the geography, the culture, the history and others social and environmental  factors.

We need  to know the  people,  their culture, their concerns to align the design and the delivery processes of each practical knowledge package for development to their social challenge. Otherwise our challenge will be vain as said it by Blaise Pascal  - "Vérité en-deçà des Pyrénées, erreur au-delà" .

The following table describes some characteristic of what we need to "know" for a better delivery.....

Physical aspects
Every community has a physical presence of some sort, even if only one building.  Most have a geographic area or areas they are either defined by or attached to.  It's important to know the community's size and the look and feel of its buildings, its topography (the lay of the land -- the hills, valleys, rivers, roads, and other features you'd find on a map), and each of its neighborhoods.  Also important are how various areas of the community differ from one another, and whether your impression is one of clean, well-maintained houses and streets, or one of shabbiness, dirt, and neglect.
Infrastructure
 Roads, bridges, transportation (local public transportation, airports, and train lines), electricity, land line and mobile telephone service, broadband service, and similar "basics" make up the infrastructure of the community, without which it couldn't function.
Patterns of settlement, commerce, and industry
Where are those physical spaces we've been discussing? Communities reveal their character by where and how they create living and working spaces. Where there are true slums -- substandard housing in areas with few or no services that are the only options for low-income people -- the value the larger community places on those residents seems clear.  Are heavy industries located next to residential neighborhoods?  If so, who lives in those neighborhoods?  Are some parts of the community dangerous, either because of high crime and violence or because of unsafe conditions in the built or natural environment?  
Demographics
It's vital to understand who makes up the community.  Age, gender, race and ethnicity, marital status, education, number of people in household, first language -- these and other statistics make up the demographic profile of the population.  When you put them together (e.g., the education level of black women ages 18-24), it gives you a clear picture of who community residents are.  
History
The long-term history of the community can tell you about community traditions, what the community is, or has been, proud of, and what residents would prefer not to talk about.  Recent history can afford valuable information about conflicts and factions within the community, important issues, past and current relationships among key people and groups -- many of the factors that can trip up any effort before it starts if you don't know about and address them.
Community leaders, formal and informal
Some community leaders are elected or appointed -- mayors, city councilors, and directors of public works.  Others are considered leaders because of their activities or their positions in the community -- community activists, corporate CEO's, college presidents, doctors, clergy.  Still others are recognized as leaders because, they are trusted for their proven integrity, courage, and/or care for others and the good of the community.
Community culture, formal and informal
This covers the spoken and unspoken rules and traditions by which the community lives.  It can include everything from community events and slogans -- the blessing of the fishing fleet, the "Artichoke Capital of the World" -- to norms of behavior -- turning a blind eye to alcohol abuse or domestic violence -- to patterns of discrimination and exercise of power.  Understanding the culture and how it developed can be crucial, especially if that's what you're attempting to change. 
Existing groups
 Most communities have an array of groups and organizations of different kinds -- service clubs (Lions, Rotary, etc.), faith groups, youth organizations, sports teams and clubs, groups formed around shared interests, the boards of community-wide organizations (the YMCA, the symphony, United Way), as well as groups devoted to self-help, advocacy, and activism.  Knowing of the existence and importance of each of these groups can pave the way for alliances or for understanding opposition. 
Existing institutions
Every community has institutions that are important to it, and that have more or less credibility with residents.  Colleges and universities, libraries, religious institutions, hospitals -- all of these and many others can occupy important places in the community.  It's important to know what they are, who represents them, and what influence they wield.
Economics
Who are the major employers in the community?  What, if any, business or industry is the community's base?  Who, if anyone, exercises economic power?  How is wealth distributed?  Would you characterize the community as poor, working, class, middle class, or affluent?  What are the economic prospects of the population in general and/or the population you're concerned with?
Government/Politics
Understanding the structure of community government is obviously important.  Some communities may have strong mayors and weak city councils, others the opposite.  Still other communities may have no mayor at all, but only a town manager, or may have a different form of government entirely.  Whatever the government structure, where does political power lie?  Understanding where the real power is can be the difference between a successful effort and a vain one. 
Social structure
Many aspects of social structure are integrated into other areas -- relationships, politics, economics -- but there are also the questions of how people in the community relate to one another on a daily basis, how problems are (or aren't) resolved, who socializes or does business with whom, etc.  This area also includes perceptions and symbols of status and respect, and whether status carries entitlement or responsibility (or both).
Attitudes and values
Again, much of this area may be covered by investigation into others, particularly culture.  What does the community care about, and what does it ignore?  What are residents' assumptions about the proper way to behave, to dress, to do business, to treat others?  Is there widely accepted discrimination against one or more groups by the majority or by those in power?  What are the norms for interaction among those who with different opinions or different backgrounds?  
Table source: Community Tool Box


Once we get the right pictures, and the comprehension of “what is happened on the targeted ground” we need now to think about the design, the format, and the delivery and support processes of the intervention into the community practices. The following questions could help us building the right delivery and Support  into community practices.

How could we deliver successfully our practical knowledge as knowledge package? How do we know our knowledge package will work with success in the target audience´s environment with regards to political, social, cultural and institutional realities on the ground? Are we right to deliver, to support and to upgrade continuous the knowledge package on the target site? Is there the complete local capacity in terms of adequate sociocultural infrastructures, and the technical, managerial and financial skills to bring and support such knowledge package to a successful end? Are the tools and machinery required to carry on the knowledge package available locally and are the resources required to maintain the above also available locally? ...

We are trying to deliver, and support successfully an extern practical public knowledge for development into local practical client knowledge (community’s practices)...

Virtual platform will be the best solution.  Unfortunately, the information technology alone could not resolve the challenge we are facing in the effective delivery of knowledge for development services into a local community practices (Practical client knowledge). The limit of access to the information technology in remote areas even in some urban areas is a major obstacle in the effective delivery of knowledge development services.

The approach integrates people, systems (virtual and physical) and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents of all participants to optimize the  delivery results, increase value to the delivered intervention, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, production, testing, readapting, packaging, embedding, distributing, delivering, transferring, replicating and supporting delivery into local Community Practices.

The following table describes the key elements and what to do, to know,  processes  etc. for the efficient designing, delivery and support of practical knowledge for development into community practices.

The following table describes the key elements and what to do, what to know,  processes etc. for the efficient designing, delivery and support of practical knowledge for development into community practices.









Key environment
What to do, what to know etc.
Knowing the practical client knowledge  environment
Local practices
Basis needs
learning experience
Spiritual, moral,
religion and philosophy
Daily practices
Habits
Economic, social and political environment
Knowing the capacities of the client in sociocultural  knowledge infrastructures ( Access to and availability)
Transport infrastructures
water infrastructures,
communication infrastructures,
solid and liquid waste infrastructures
earth monitoring and measurement infrastructures
management and governance of social infrastructures
economic and cultural infrastructures,
economic infrastructures
social infrastructures,
cultural infrastructures,
environmental infrastructures
Discussing  with the target community
Cooperation
Collaboration
Participation
Friends
Stakeholder
Feedback
Listing
Involvement
Understanding  the requirement
Situation
Scope
Environment
Knowledge business case
Obstacle
Building  the practical knowledge business case
Desirable
Viable
Achievable
Measurable
Utility (fit for purpose)
Warranty (fit for use)
Worth the continued updating
Work with target client
To identify:
Real life story
Community elders sharing
The right knowledge scope
The right knowledge format
The right knowledge infrastructures
The right knowledge sharing and transfer strategy
The continuous knowledge upgrades strategy and policies
Listen to the target Client
communication 
Communities needs
Local or regional committee
Local government
Direct participation
Collaboration
Feedbacks.
Involvement
Evaluate the infrastructures of the client
Local potential socio cultural knowledge infrastructures
Blog/Website
Social Channels
Social Media
Picture
Engagement
ICT infrastructures
Palaver tree
Buildings
Development centers
Physical knowledge platform
Analyze the access capacity on knowledge of the client
Basis resources
Delivery strategies
Socio cultural infrastructures
Right knowledge package
Right knowledge package´s formats
Right infrastructures that support this knowledge
Procurement
Evaluate the format on knowledge of the client
Virtual portal
Media
photos
Video
Book
Voice
Theatre
Discussion
Local knowledge resources format
Communities’ activities
Do nothing, do something, and do minimum
Start small
Asses
Keep it clear
Keep it easy
Collaborate with local communities
Avoid complex theory management style
Experiment the knowledge business case
Listen to communities
Focus on communities interests
Follow and manage change
Question
Query
Idea
Observation
Concern
Keep supporting
Adaptation
Right resources
Right format
Amelioration
Measurement
Evaluation
Assessment
Attention of potential
Attention of new requirement
Keep updating
Designing new knowledge business case
Innovation
Designing new knowledge format
Designing new knowledge infrastructure
Designing new knowledge business case
Stay actual
Eager of progress
Building knowledge network
Share resources
Highlight events
Training updates
Blog posts
Ask and answer questions.
Technique
Knowledge-based planning technique
Focus on social attention
Establishing clearly the knowledge package business case
Determining the knowledge scope boundary for the Plan
Preparing the foundations for Work knowledge package
Articulating responsibilities for creating, reviewing, and approving the knowledge package business case
Content
Community’s expectations
Standards and processes
Prioritized
Relevant content
Gaining a better understanding
Knowledge of local knowledge management practices
Acceptance Criteria
Learned
Local Skills
Handle the knowledge package
Sharing and transfer
Enhance
Exploit
Scope
Face to face
Development center meetings
Palaver tree
Team
Decisions
Discussions and problem solving place
Harvest celebrations
Festivals place
Stories place
Consensus place
Review place
Language  
Knowledge package for development language´s scope
Local language
Community’s language
Official language
Dialects…
Format
Virtual portal
digital
Oral
Physical
Medias
Technical Infrastructures
ICT Infrastructures
Web applications
Telecentre
e-learning  
Television                                     
Radio
Mobile
Databases
Collaborative software
Virtual platform
Online conference and communication
Social media Platform
Non-technical Infrastructures
Palaver Trees
Story place
Group discussions
Collective communication place
Development centers
Traditional knowledge sharing centers
Problem solving place
Festivals place
Group consensus place
Final decision place



 Mapping the practical knowledge package core Business processes








Mapping the knowledge package core Business processes
Data
Processes
Information
Knowledge
Wisdom
Perception
Reason
Emotion
Establishing Roles, Responsibilities
Knowledge institution
Knowledge organization
Knowledge package board
Knowledge package producer
Knowledge package customizer
Knowledge package connector
Knowledge package support
Establishing the critical Success factors
Knowledge scope
Knowledge infrastructures
Knowledge format
Knowledge resources
Knowledge potential
Knowledge cultures
Knowledge environment
Knowledge update concept
Choose the basis
Decision
Process
Output
Outcome
Benefit
Setting the KPI
input
environment
Business case
Process
Output
Outcome
Benefit
Availability/resources
Communities
Setting the knowledge package target
Performance levels
Focus
Alignment
Goals
Achievement
Implementation
Assumption
Motivation
Review the knowledge package through
The Reviewer
Producer
Consumer
Support group
Stakeholder
Knowledge delivery
Define and accept the  knowledge package for development format
Define and accept the knowledge package for development infrastructures
Execute the knowledge package for development
Deliver the knowledge package for development
Agreed updating and supporting frequency for the knowledge package  development
Motivation
Performance 
Management
Formulation 
Coherence
Strategy and objective
Efficiency
Effectiveness
Controlling
Doing the right thing
Control
Measurement
Assessment
Good issue management procedure
Capture
Examine
Propose
Decide
Implement
Budgeting
Purchasing better socio cultural knowledge infrastructures
Purchasing better knowledge format
Better understand the situation.
Cost-effective
Common goals 
Focus on people’s thinking and work
Common vision of accomplishment
Creativity in developing better ways to achieve the knowledge package goal
Quick feedback
Output, focuses on improving
Outcome, focuses on motivation
Celebration
Celebration to improvement
Leading the celebration
Motivation
Learning-sharing
Promotion
Competence
Value of development
Promotion
Target communities convinced
Learning
Right sharing and learning processes,
Right information format
Right collaboration and participation
Improvement
Development performance
Improvements.
Output
Outcome
Benefit
 Evaluating
Status Update
Main knowledge sharing and transfer issues
Major knowledge sharing and transfer in the past period
Major knowledge sharing and transfer expected in the next period
Quality assurance
Adapted table from Setting Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for Knowledge Package for Development






Conclusion

This paper helps me to responding to the problem  that at the end of the day, we can say we provided practical knowledge, we achieved results, however no one is happy and the solution becomes unsustainable.

Adopting this framework will guarantee that any delivered intervention has it merit into the community practices. So at the end of the day, we can say we provided  and delivered successfully practical knowledge, we achieved results, and everyone is happy and the solution becomes sustainable.. I really hope that community development will think about adapting this approach in their intervention delivery agenda to achieve great development results.



A paper that describes what it takes to put together a workable delivered intervention - One of the complex missions of the science of the delivery.

 *Author, Amouzou Bedi (Expertise and knowledge of the science management and its cultural implications in the developed and developing world in particular), contact on LinkedIn. I will try to update this paper on a regular basis if a need arises. Please if you have a suggestion - how we can better this approach and feedback with regards to this work please feel free to share this. Many thanks for taking your time to read this paper. Thank you Mr. Bruce Summers, CVA, and all.


Photo: Design for Delivery and Focus
Photo- Angoisse: http://www.crises-angoisses.com/

Keine Kommentare:

Kommentar veröffentlichen